Alexandria and I wrote a study guide. We wrote about characters, symbols, themes, why George Orwell wrote the book and what the picture of the view of the capitalist system represents.

Characters
Old Major: he told them about the rebellion against the humans, and he explained to them how they produce things, but the humans take them for their own profit and produce nothing in return.
Jones: He used to be the owner of Animal Farm, until the animals revolted against them.
Snowball: He was the leader of Animal Farm, until the dogs chased him away. He cared about the animals, and wanted to do things to help them.
Mollie: is basically the opposite of all the animals on the farm. She doesn’t really care about the revolution, as long as she gets what she wants.
Napoleon: He is the new leader of Animal Farm, after Snowball was chased off the farm. He wanted power so he sent the dogs after Snowball, so he could be the leader of Animal Farm.
Boxer: He is the most hard-working animal on the farm. His two mottos are: “I will work harder” and “Napoleon is always right”. He uses the first motto when something goes wrong on the farm and he uses the second when the other animals question Napoleon.
Clover: She is one of the few who question Napoleon. She thinks the pigs changed the commandments but afterwards she blames herself for misremembering them.
Squealer: Uses rhetorical language to convince the animals that he is on their side, but he is actually on the pigs’ side. He explains everything that happens on the farm.
Benjamin: He thinks that no matter who is in charge of the farm, it is still an unpleasant society.

Themes
Corruption – Irresponsible Leadership and Tyranny
Napoleon gets corrupted by power. He is irresponsible with his leadership; for example, he makes all animals bow down to the pigs. He claims that it is a communist society, but the pigs are treated a lot better than the other animals- “all animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.” Napoleon treats the animals poorly. For example, he overworks them and underfeeds them. When Boxer gets sick he does not send him to the vet because he doesn’t want to pay for him. Instead, he sends him to the glue factory.


Absence of Individual Rights and Freedoms
Napoleon does not let the animals have any rights and freedoms. The dogs do not let the animals voice their opinions, and the sheep interrupt the animals who are talking with “four legs good, two legs bad”. The animals do not have the courage to express their thoughts because they do not want to be chased off the farm like Snowball, or killed by the dogs. The animals don’t have the right to share the Jones’s house with the pigs.


The Importance of Questioning Authority
In Animal Farm, because the animals did not have the bravery to question Napoleon because the dogs would eventually growl at them. If they never ask questions when Napoleon first changed the commandments, then the leaders would just keep changing them and pretend nothing happened. It is important because people/animals do not always tell the truth, so it is important to find out the truth.

Education vs. Indoctrination
Snowball wants to educate the animals; to Snowball, knowledge is very important. At the same time, Napoleon wants to indoctrinate them, so they would all think alike because there is only one point of view on the farm, which his Napoleon’s own point of view. Every animal would then think Napoleon is the greatest leader ever. Napoleon thinks maintaining his power at Animal Farm is more important than the animals’ knowledge. He abolished the Beasts of England and Sunday meetings so no animal would remember the days when there was education on the farm.

Symbolism
Boxer-- Working Class: Boxer represents the working class because he does all the work he can, even though it does not directly benefit him. He worked at old age a lot so he could see the windmill built.
Pigs – Upper Class: They do not do as much work as the animals, but they benefit from them. They get to do anything they want. They believe they are much more special than the other animals, and they want the other animals to see it too.
Dogs – Secret Police: They are the secret police because just like the real secret police, they threaten anyone who goes against their leader. They do whatever their leader tells them to do.
Snowball—Leon Trotsky: Snowball cares about his people (animals) just like Leon Trotsky. Snowball was chased out of the farm and Trotsky was expelled from the USSR.
Napoleon—Joseph Stalin: Napolean does not care about the people, but he makes them believe he does. He sent the dogs to chase Snowball out of the farm, just like Stalin expelled Trotsky from the USSR.
Mollie—Bourgeoisie: She does not work, but she eats the food that the animals get. She has been pampered by the humans since birth and treated well just like the bourgeoisie.
Mr. Fredrick – Adolf Hitler: He treats his animals very poorly like Hitler did with the Jews.

Why he wrote the book
He wrote the book to explain the events that happened in real life. Lenin comes up with the idea of communism to help save the working class. In a communist society, everyone is equal. Two people want to be his successor, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. In Animal Farm, Leon Trotsky is Snowball, and Stalin is Napoleon. They both wanted to be the successor of Old Major. Leon Trotsky cares about the people, unlike Joseph Stalin. Stalin tricks Lenin into believing he actually cares about the people. Then Lenin dies, and Stalin takes control of Russia in 1924. He expelled Trotsky from USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) in 1929. In Animal Farm, Napoleon’s dogs chased Snowball out of the farm. Stalin hired secret police to make sure no one goes against him. In Animal Farm, Napoleon has the dogs to threaten any animal who goes against him. George Orwell wrote Animal Farm to show people what happened to communism, why it started, and what Stalin did.

Picture of symbolism explained (bottom of page)
Top level (royalties) used to be Mr. Jones, because he ruled over the animals and was the owner of the farm. This is now Napoleon because he became the new leader of Animal Farm, and he benefits from all of the animals’ labour.

Second level (Upper class: religious figures) used to be Jones’s men, because they fed and took care of the animals and made them think that they had a good life. It is now Squealer, because he tricks the animals into believing in him, the other pigs, and Napoleon.

The third level (Secret police) is the dogs, because they threaten anyone who goes against Napoleon.

The fourth level (Bourgeoisie) is Mollie, because she benefits from other animals’ work (she eats the food), but she doesn’t do any work herself.

The fifth level (the working class) is all the ordinary animals, but it’s mainly Boxer because they work for everyone else and receive little in return. Everyone else benefits from their work.

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